domingo, 19 de junio de 2022

$\sum_{cyc}\tan\frac\alpha2\tan\frac\beta2\geq4$ for a cyclic quadrilateral

 Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral with sides $a$, $b$, $c$ and $d$. Denote $s$ the semiperimeter and let $\angle{DAB}=\alpha$, $\angle{ABC}=\beta$, $\angle{BCD}=\gamma$ and $\angle{CDA}=\delta$. Then the following inequality holds

$$\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\geq4.\tag{1}$$

Proof. Substituting from the half-angle formula for the tangent we have that
$$\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}=\sqrt{\frac{(s-a)(s-d)}{(s-b)(s-c)}}\cdot{\sqrt{\frac{(s-a)(s-b)}{(s-c)(s-d)}}}=\frac{s-a}{s-c}.$$
Similarly, 
$$\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}=\frac{s-b}{s-d}\qquad\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}=\frac{s-c}{s-a}\qquad\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}=\frac{s-d}{s-b}$$
Thus, the left-hand side of $(1)$ can be rewritten as follows
$$\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}=\frac{s-a}{s-c}+\frac{s-b}{s-d}+\frac{s-c}{s-a}+\frac{s-d}{s-b}.$$
But, 
$$\frac{s-a}{s-c}+\frac{s-b}{s-d}+\frac{s-c}{s-a}+\frac{s-d}{s-b}=\frac{a-c}{s-a}+\frac{b-d}{s-b}+\frac{c-a}{s-c}+\frac{d-b}{s-d}+4.\tag{2}$$
Since $\frac{a-c}{s-a}+\frac{c-a}{s-c}=\frac{4(a-c)^2}{(-a+b+c+d)(a+b-c+d)}$, and similarly for $\frac{b-d}{s-b}+\frac{d-b}{s-d}$, then $\frac{a-c}{s-a}+\frac{b-d}{s-b}+\frac{c-a}{s-c}+\frac{d-b}{s-d}$ is positive. Hence,
$$\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\geq4.$$
$\square$
Notice equality holds when $ABCD$ is rectangular. 

From $(2)$ it also follows that

$$\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\beta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\gamma}{2}}\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}+\tan{\frac{\delta}{2}}\tan{\frac{\alpha}{2}}>\frac{a-c}{s-a}-\frac{a-c}{s-c}+\frac{b-d}{s-b}-\frac{ b-d}{s-d}.$$

A huge list of inequalities can be seen at Cut-the-knot.org.